Tag: Russia

How dangerous is jailed Navalny to Putin?

How dangerous is jailed Navalny to Putin?

Alexei Navalny returned to Moscow five months after being poisoned with nerve agent Novichok and receiving treatment at a Berlin hospital, and landed straight into prison. At the airport authorities detained Navalny, the opposition leader and most prominent Kremlin critic. 

Interestingly, now for over a decade, Vladimir Putin has refrained from taking his name, mostly referring to him as ‘that gentleman’ and recently ‘patient’, after he was poisoned by suspectedly FSB agents. Logically, the act is deliberate for not giving Navalny media space and free advertising. But it also indicates the rivalry that has taken up to be personal and Putin’s deep understanding that Navalny is nowhere near backing down from exposing Putin, even after his near-death threat by recent poisoning or even prison. 

Even being in Moscow’s infamously notorious jail, Matrosskaya Tishina, has not tamed down Navalny and he is continuing to be a danger to Putin’s position and reputation. Navalny’s team have initiated a gigantic investigation into Putin’s wealth on Tuesday. This includes his £1 billion palace on Black Sea which is claimed to be built for the Russian controversial and equally ‘untouchable’ president. Navalny has called it “the biggest bribe in history”. 

Navalny’s team has researched and released blueprints and details of the manor. Then the team poked the bear saying that now that architecture has been revealed, Putin who is known to be obsessed with safety, will have to abandon the palace. 

Navalny is famous for never backing from publicly attacks Putin directly. During 2011-2012 protests, Navalny had called him a ‘thief’ and his party United Russia a “party of crooks and thieves”. Putin has been called as the biggest existential threat to Putin and his government. 

Zhanna Nemtsova, daughter of opposition leader Boris Nemtsova who was murdered, writes, “Putin is no longer afraid of western sanctions, critical statements and the demands of European and American politicians for further isolation. For him the stakes are too high – he knows that Navalny is capable of overthrowing his regime.”

Over the years Navalny has proven to be a crowd pleaser and a good approachable leader to that. He is an excellent speaker and enjoys being on stage, interacting with people, a leader during protests and with a very effective presence, a tech-savvy young campaigner with whom youth feel connected. These all qualities are in contrast to Putin, something that fears Kremlin. His courage has always been the talking point internationally, something which he again highlighted as he returned to Moscow on Sunday after fighting for his life in Germany post poisoning. 

Ukraine stuck in vaccine geopolitics amid coronavirus pandemic

Ukraine stuck in vaccine geopolitics amid coronavirus pandemic

Vaccine Geopolitics: To begin with, the first talks with Pfizer company and other Western vaccine manufacturers to get early shipments imploded after the Trump administration restricted vaccine exports. Presently, chances are only if President-elect Joe Biden takes office, the soonest commercial purchase of Western vaccines will be possible, The New York Times reported.

The pace of Covid disease in Ukraine has eased back in recent weeks with over 7,000 new cases reported every day. Since the start of the pandemic, 19,712 Ukrainians have passed away due to the infection. Ukraine declared a nationwide lockdown beginning from this weekend.

The immunization situation has generated an information war in Ukraine, which has been stirred up by Russia. TV broadcasting pro-Russian perspectives along with politicians have blamed President Zelensky for permitting Ukrainians to cease to exist of a difficult refusal to procure medication from an enemy nation. 

The nation is already battling with a tug of war between East and West in European political issues, which has presently become a point of convergence in the geopolitics being played on the covid-19 vaccine.

According to The New York Times, Lyudmyla Boiko’s family has just had a frightening, and deadly, experience with the Covid pandemic. 

A few relatives acquired the virus, and her daughter-in-law’s mom passed away. Presently, Ms. Boiko, a 61-year-old working at the Botanical Garden in Ukraine, is profoundly stressed over her husband’s health, which has medical conditions yet has not yet contracted the disease. She is placing her faith in an immunization. 

“I don’t mind where the vaccine is delivered as long as it’s safe, “Wellbeing ought to be the priority, Ms. Boiko stated.” 

Ukraine’s situation has grabbed the attention of Russia’s state-controlled media sources, who have underlined Ukraine’s Western partner’s failure to help in the time of need and offering the Russian Sputnik V vaccine as the alternative. 

Ukraine’s leaders, who have raised concerns over the efficacy and safety of the Sputnik V instead opted for China, purchasing its first vaccine in a rushed arrangement by the end of December 2020. 

“Russia, as usual, utilizes this in its crossover battle, as a data weapon,” Maksym Stepanov, Ukraine’s health minister stated over a phone interview about the nation’s work towards immunizing its populace. “He stressed, that the vaccine issue has been politicized.” 

The Russian insult has shocked Ukrainian health authorities; however, there is little they can do to counter it without an elective vaccine stock. 

“Russia is seeking an aggressive policy for the vaccine,” Oleksandr Linchevsky, former deputy health minister stated. “It’s in Russia’s governmental interest that Ukraine gets the vaccine from somewhere else soon as possible,” he added.

Ukraine, with a populace of 42 million, is expecting to get 8,000,000 vaccine injections under the Covax program that provides middle and low-income nations. However, those doses are scheduled to arrive in March.

Before the banning of vaccine exports from the United States, Ukraine had been in talks with Moderna, Pfizer, and Johnson and Johnson to accelerate delivery. However, the negotiations are in process, the delivery time is deferred.

Ukraine’s Volodymyr Zelensky has scarcely contained his shock at his nation ending up far back in the line for immunizations in spite of its uncertain geopolitical situation.

Russia opposes the United States over the Syria’s chemical weapons sanctions
Middle East & Africa

Russia opposes the United States over the Syria’s chemical weapons sanctions

Syria’s chemical weapons: The Syrian authority, supported by close ally Russia, opposed the United States and other countries on Tuesday over the suspension of the Syrian democratic rights to vote within the global chemical weapons watchdog for failing to present details of three chemical strikes in 2017 that the prosecutors indicted on the Bashar Assad regime.

The meeting in the U.N. Security Council implied a standoff when the 193 member state of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in The Hague, Netherlands was held in April to think about a French-drafted measure, for 46 nations, to suspend Syria’s privileges and rights. 

The French proposal was a reaction to the Syrian authority’s failure to meet the 90 days deadline in July by the OPCW’s council for Damascus to pronounce the nerve specialist sarin and chlorine, which the OPCW watchdog stated were dismissed by Syrian authority in late March 2017. 

The Western power’s effort shows a lot more extensive exertion in order to obtain responsibility for Syrian chemical assaults and feature claims that the Assad rule is subtly proceeding with its chemical weapons plan. 

In September 2013, Syria entered the Chemical Weapons Convention, pushed by Russia after a lethal chemical weapons assault that the US charged on Damascus. 

However, by Aug 2014, the Assad regime had announced that its chemical weapons were completely destructed. Yet, Syria’s underlying statement of its chemical weapon-making sites has continued to be in conflict. 

It was profoundly upsetting that the OPCW still couldn’t decide if the underlying announcement was precise due to irregularities. The issues are not trivial as some would depict, referring to Russia, Ireland’s UN envoy Geraldine Byrne Nason stated.

Norwegian envoy Mona Juul, also showed concern over Syria’s failure to describe the unnamed chemical that is not used as a weapon. It was identified at the Barzah offices of the Syrian Scientific Studies and Research Center. 

Dmitry Polyansky, Russia’s UN envoy, blamed the OPCW team of experts for being “corrupt” and asserted they utilized falsely accused Syria. 

English envoy Barbara Woodward stated that the OPCW team had concluded Syria utilized chemical weapons in six events. “These are not speculative issues for a great many citizens in Syria who have endured the appalling consequences for the body of nerve and chlorine agents,” she added. 

The US deputy envoy Richard Mills told that neither the Security Council nor the world is tricked by Russia’s hurried mission to undermine the OPCW. 

He urged board members to approach all nations to help the French draft measures against Syria in April pointed toward advancing answerability for the Assad regime’s activities.

Kremlin Seeks Support Of Middle East For Peace In Libya
Middle East & Africa

Kremlin Seeks Support Of Middle East For Peace In Libya

Kremlin Seeks Support: Russia is now seeking help from some likeminded countries to restore democracy and normalcy in Libya. For this, Kremlin has asked the UAE and Egypt to mitigate the change. 

Egyptian, in response, is seeking negotiations in Geneva where it is focused at the exit of foreign mercenaries who have been instrumental in creating chaos in Libya. This proposal has garnered support from Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Russia, Jordan and Bahrain. This agreement has come through in a recent press briefing held in Moscow.

According to UAE Foreign Minister Sheikh Abdullah bin Zayed Al-Nahyan, “The greatest challenge facing Libya is the control of the extremist groups that have dominated the political scene for over a decade.”

Libya has been at loss of a proper functioning government since 2011, post which the country has been tossed around between rival administrations in the east and the west. 

Russia has been in support of General Haftar who is on the other side of the warring faction in Libya. Any kind of peace talks which involves Haftar, it is confirmed, does not feature on the negotiation table for defense minister the UN-backed government of GNA in Libya, Salah-al-Namroush, who has also publicly reproached France for siding with Haftar. 

According to the UN backed GNA, Khalifa Haftar is nothing less that a war criminal and a warlord.  Till date, despite a ceasefire and long standing arms embargo, Libya continues to be swamped by 20,000 foreign fighters and mercenaries, the United Nations envoy to the country has confirmed recently, calling the situation a “shocking violation of Libyan sovereignty.”

Investigation reveals Russian agents who pursued Putin’s nemesis Navalny before he was poisoned

Investigation reveals Russian agents who pursued Putin’s nemesis Navalny before he was poisoned

Putin’s nemesis: On Monday, reports of a joint investigation caried out by CNN and Bellingcat, the online investigative outfit, were published blaming and naming Russian intelligence agents for pursuing Vladimir Putin’s nemesis Alexei Navalny and poisoning him with the nerve agent Novichok. 

Navalny was poisoned in August with Novichok as he collapsed mid-flight on his flight from Tomsk, the last lag on his trip to Siberia. 

The investigation implicates FSB agents in the poisoning incident of Navalny. The Navalny team, as investigation reveals, was constantly under watch of Russia’s FSB – the successor of KGB, Soviet Union’s secret police force. Investigation also revealed that Navalny was followed by FSB agents on over 30 trips since 2017 to and from Moscow. 

Navalny’s anti-corruption campaign lead, Maria Pevchikh, was followed in flight from Moscow to Novosibirsk, Serbia, by Oleg Tayakin. Tayakin is an FSB member and belongs to its team specializing in nerve agents and toxins. The following of Pevchikh a week before Navalny too was supposed to reach Serbia links the sequence of events. In fact, the very morning several FSB agents made their way to Serbian city. Navalny, the Putin’s archrival, was to arrive in Novosibirsk the next day.

The investigation reveals that these agents usually followed Navalny in groups of three and would take parallel flights to the destination. In the initial years, the agents were using their original names but later switched to using their spouse’s maiden names and changing their birth dates to next year. 

Report has identified the three men who had “entailed” Navalny to Tomsk where he was poisoned, also revealing phone and travel data which “strongly suggests the August poisoning attempt on Navalny’s life was mandated at the highest echelons of the Kremlin”. 

Following the revelations, Navalny, who was released from Berlin hospital post treatment in September, tweeted, “Case closed.” 

There has been no response yet from Kremlin about the investigation and revelations. 

The group named in report is FSB Criminalistics Institute, also known as Research Institute – 2 or Military Unit 34435.Investigators could track their phone and travel records which also proved that they were entailing Navalny since three years. The report said, “Beginning in 2017 – after Mr Navalny announced his plan to run for the presidency – operatives travelled with the opposition figure on more than 30 flights in a three-year period.” 

The three named agents who travelled with Navalny to last destination where he was poisoned are medical doctors Alexey Alexandrov and Ivan Osipov, and Vladimir Panyaev. 

Phone tracking of these agents reveals that when Navalny was poisoned, they were just few minutes away from him. There are also messages and calls between agents and supervisors at specific times including just after Navalny fell sick in flight. Three FSB agents also booked flights to Kalinigrad city where Navalny had travelled with his wife Yuliya, who had also developed similar minor symptoms in the July trip.

The report thus concludes, “Given this implausible series of coincidences, the burden of proof for an innocent explanation appears to rest purely with the Russian state.” 

A cyberattack on the US government, perhaps from Russia

A cyberattack on the US government, perhaps from Russia

A cyberattack on the US government: It targeted several federal agencies by hackers linked to a foreign government. According to the New York Times, the main suspicions fall on Russia.  The White House confirmed yesterday evening that hackers acting on behalf of a foreign government broke into a range of key government platforms. The departments of the Treasury and Commerce were also under attack as the hackers are gaining free access to email. 

Administrators affirmed that an investigation is taking place to ascertain if other government networks had been targeted by the sophisticated attack. That would be the most critical cyber offensive from the last five years, and a vast operation is underway to determine how extensive the attack was, described as one of the most sophisticated ever.

According to NBC, the hackers probably breached the systems of some national security agencies, but it is not yet clear whether any classified data or information has been stolen until now. The Trump administration unveiled few details in public about the operation, which suggested that while the government was worried about Russian intervention in the 2020 election, key agencies working for the White House — and unrelated to the election — were the subject of a sophisticated attack that they were unaware of until recent weeks. The NYT notes.

John Ullyot, a spokesman for the National Security Council, said in a statement that the U.S. Government was aware of the attack, and it’s taking “all necessary steps to identify and remedy any possible issues related to this situation”. The Department of Homeland Security’s cybersecurity agency, whose director was fired by Donald Trump a few weeks ago for claiming that there had been no public election fraud, also indicated it was working on the offensive.

US media affirmed that one of the agencies of the Commerce Department were affected. For the NYT, it can be the National Telecommunications and Information Administration, responsible for the policy for internet-related issues, including establishing criteria and blocking imports and exports of technology viewed as a risk for the US national security.

The reasons behind the attack on the agency and the Treasury Department seems to be obscure. As for now, officials say that it is too early to estimate the damage caused by the cyberattack and how many pieces of information were breached. Many believe the attack was underway for months among the coronavirus pandemic and the preparation of the election.

Why Russia Is Moving Closer To Helium Production?

Why Russia Is Moving Closer To Helium Production?

Helium Production: Russia is intending to move closer towards piping helium that could raise geopolitical risks and threat to the supply of this finite resource. One of the biggest reserves of gas are found in Siberia region, that Russia is intending to tap into through its manufacturing units come into action in 2021. 

Currently, the US and Qatar produce a chunk of the helium. US in the past is known to have sanctioned other projects by Gazprom that promises to create a pipeline of helium supply to China and whoever else would like to be in business with Russia. Indeed Russia will be “well-positioned to supply China and the technology industry on the US West Coast”.

Russia has close ties with China and this might have been one more reason, it did not break a sweat over the dubious production of Covid-19 vaccines in its own country or Beijing for that matter. 

With Russia dominance of the supply of helium, geopolitical dynamics might get imbalanced. In the past, the Trump administration had sanctioned the controversial Nord Stream 2 natural gas pipeline linking Russia to Germany by placing it under an embargo with its “complicated mix of politics and economics influences the Kremlin’s decisions.”

Helium will last us another 30 years. Since 2016, the United States produced the largest volume of helium worldwide. In that year, they produced 64 million cubic meters of helium, which was extracted from natural gas. Following the United States was Qatar, which produced 45 million cubic meters of helium. 

Helium is used maximum in semiconductor production and medical facilities. 

Sandu-led Moldovans protest for early parliamentary polls

Sandu-led Moldovans protest for early parliamentary polls

Sandu-led Moldovans protest: Moldovans backed by Maia Sandu rallied outside parliament building demanding new parliamentary polls

Thousands of protesters rallied outside the national Parliament building in the Moldovan capital, Chișinău, on Sunday to demand government’s resignation and new parliamentary elections. 

This development has come in the afternath of the appointment of pro-European president Maia Sandu last month. Sandu, who is scheduled to take office on December 24, defeated pro-Russian incumbent Igor Dodon in a run-off vote.

Earlier this week, the country’s lawmakers led by her predecessor Igor Dodon passed a bill to transfer control of the Moldovan intelligence agency from the President to Parliament. In response, Sandu gathered her supporters to rally against the move. 

As per reports, over 5,000 people rallies in protest of the move. During the protests, demonstrators reportedly raised slogans and chants of “Down with Dodon!” and “We will not give in!” They waved Moldovan flags and called for dissolving the parliament. 

“We will go to the end until we cleanse the country of corrupt officials,” protesters shouted during Sunday’s rally, as per reports. 

They called for dissolution of parliament in protest against the parliament’s decision to strip Sandu of her control of the intelligence service. Speaking to protesters at Sunday’s rally, incoming president Sandu called for the government to resign and organisation of early parliamentary elections.

Protesters also demanded to inaugurate Sandu on December 10. As of now, her inauguration is scheduled to take place after two weeks on December 24. 

Sandu and her supporters are alleging that the legislation is aimed at undermining the President’s power. Sandu carried out her election protests with the promise to alleviate corruption in the country. 

In his four years in power, Dodon has gained a prestige of pro-Russian leader after receiving strong backing from Moscow. However, a former World Bank economist, Sandu has favoured closer ties with the European Union. 

Even as Sandu won the vote, she will have to share power with a government and parliament that is run by lawmakers who are inclined towards Dodon.

One of the poorest European nations, the former Soviet country of 3.5 million people has been divided between European Union and Moscow. Moldova has been on the receiving of major economic crisis in recent years due to instability in government and corruption scandals.

How the geopolitical scenario on weapons evolves

How the geopolitical scenario on weapons evolves

Geopolitical scenario on weapons: In recent years, with the resurgence of nationalist and populist movements, we are witnessing the withdrawal of several countries from international treaties, from those on the environment to those that determine borders. In this context, the withdrawal of superpowers from the Arms Non-Proliferation Agreements is of particular concern. It is not clear whether the exit of nations from these Treaties is the cause or the result of a global geopolitical change.

The relaunch of the missile shield project, officially to counter the Iranian and North Korean threat, led Russia to declare in 2007 that the INF treaty no longer fully corresponded to its interests. Likewise, in 2015 Russia concluded its participation in the CFE Treaty. In August 2019 the United States withdrew from the INF treaty claiming that the Russians did not respect it. And on May 21, Trump announced the upcoming US withdrawal from the Open Sky Treaty, after the six-month notice provided in the text. Finally, there is uncertainty about the New Start Treaty, which expires in February 2021 and whose renewal by the United States and Russia is not guaranteed. These withdrawals represent a blow to the European security structure but correspond to an evolution of the geopolitical situation in the continent. Indeed, after the end of the Cold War and the Warsaw Pact, NATO pursued a power projection policy by expanding to Russia’s borders. The latter is in fact perceived as a threat by former Eastern Bloc countries, especially after Moscow’s annexation of Crimea in 2014, with Ukraine appealing for American protection.

For its part, faced with this NATO expansion, Moscow had to improve its defense system and at the end of December 2019, it unveiled some information about its anti-missile space shield, nicknamed Koupol, which should detect the launch of ballistic missiles and determine them the trajectory. In addition, to penetrate the opposing defensive systems, Russia has also developed its offensive weapons, in particular hypersonic missiles, weapons with speeds above 6,000 km / h to be undetectable and impossible to intercept.

Signed in 1992 and entered into force in 2002, the international Open Sky treaty allows overflight of the respective territories. It covers space from the far west of Canada to the far east of Russia. The goal is to control military movements and compliance with individual arms limitation measures, thus promoting a climate of trust between the parties concerned. The treaty is part of a series of agreements established at the end of the Cold War to stop the arms race between the United States and the USSR. With the aim of the balance of forces and the security of the European continent, after being the scene of confrontation between the two superpowers and their respective military alliances (Warsaw Pact for the USSR, NATO for the United States). The INF treaty, signed in 1987 between Washington and Moscow following the Euromissile crisis of the 1980s, banned the possession, production, and testing of land-based cruise and ballistic missiles with a range of between 500 and 5,500 km.

In 1990, the Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty established the level of conventional armaments and equipment that could be deployed by interested parties in treaty areas. In particular, it would have given security guarantees to Russia after the end of the Communist bloc and the dissolution of the Pact. Finally, in 1991, Russia and the United States signed the “START” treaty on the reduction of nuclear arsenals. It was replaced in 2010 by the New Start Treaty. This package, aiming to control arms or even disarmament in the case of the New Start, is gradually being questioned. Already in 2002, the United States withdrew from the anti-ballistic missile treaty (ABM), signed in 1972 between Washington and Moscow, and aimed at limiting the deployment of anti-missile missile systems. This withdrawal then allowed the Americans to develop an anti-missile shield on their territory and among some of their allies around the world, notably Japan, South Korea, the Czech Republic, Romania, and Poland.

Thus, since 2006, the Russian army has had the Iskandar surface-to-surface missile, with a range ranging from 280 to 500 km and a speed ranging from 7600 to 9300 km / h. At least eight of these missiles have been deployed on permanent military infrastructure in the Kaliningrad enclave since 2016, threatening NATO infrastructure in Europe. Likewise, in March 2018, Russia successfully launched its first Kinjal air-to-surface hypersonic missile, with a speed of over 10,000 km / h. At the end of December 2019, the “Avangard ICBM” entered into service. Dubbed “an absolute weapon” by Putin, this new missile would have a flight capacity of 33,000 km / h. It would be able to change course and altitude, making interception impossible for existing anti-missile systems. This new looming arms race poses a threat to the security of European countries, which is once again becoming a battleground in the rivalry between Washington and Moscow. Furthermore, the development of hypersonic weapons increases the risk of misunderstandings between countries.

The uncertainty surrounding the New Start Treaty and the revelation by the Washington Post on May 22 of the possibility of Trump resuming nuclear tests (interrupted since 1992) are all negative signals sent around the world. For example, on May 24, the North Korean Central News Agency reported that North Korean authorities were considering measures to strengthen the country’s “nuclear deterrent.”

The United States has the advantage of having a stable security environment, unlike Russia, which is close to nuclear powers China and North Korea, while bordering regions marked by geopolitical rivalries with Central Asia and the Caucasus. For nearly 15 years, a multipolar order has emerged, with new military powers such as China. Furthermore, the U.S. withdrawal from the treaties is understandable as Trump’s desire to relaunch his country against China, with which relations have also deteriorated strongly since the Covid-19 crisis.

Indeed, on May 24, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi warned that China and the United States were “on the verge of a new cold war.” Therefore, to avoid an arms race that could result in a hug that no one knows where it would lead, a new security architecture, including all military powers, is needed. Therefore, after announcing that he would leave the Open Sky Treaty, Trump left the door open for a treaty renegotiation with the inclusion of China.

“Havana Syndrome”: US diplomats suffer sonic attacks through microwave energy

“Havana Syndrome”: US diplomats suffer sonic attacks through microwave energy

Havana Syndrome: Many US diplomats stationed in Cuba have reported of developing mysterious and puzzling symptoms leaving scientists and intelligence agencies scratching their heads. The US State Department has sanctioned in a report that these have most likely been caused by “directed, pulsed radio frequency energy.” The report was published on Saturday by National Academy of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine.

Havana Syndrome, as the condition has popularly come to be known as, emerged first in 2016 among US federal personnel stationed in Havana, Cuba. The symptoms reported range from headaches, nausea, dizziness to blurred vision among others. In the past the possible reasons for this were explained as mosquito fumigation and noisy crickets. But the report by National Academy of Sciences has suggested it to be due to radio frequency energy. 

The report states, “After considering the information available to it and a set of possible mechanisms, the committee felt that many of the distinctive and acute signs, symptoms, and observations reported by state department employees are consistent with the effects of directed, pulsed radio frequency energy.” 

The complains after being reported in diplomats in Cuba, have also been mentioned among those stationed in China. 

The report was presented by the 19 member committee of medical experts on request of the State Department. 

Though the report doesn’t mention deliberate use of the microwave energy, it mentions that it could be used for notorious purposes. “The mere consideration of such a scenario raises grave concerns about a world with disinhibited malevolent actors and new tools for causing harm to others, as if the U.S. government does not have its hands full already with naturally occurring threats.” 

Researchers also revealed reports of brain analysis of a diplomat, Mark Lenzi, who was stationed in Guangzhou, China in 2017. Lenzi had reported of unexplained symptoms like headache, irritability, memory and sleep related problems. The MRI shows 20 brain regions of having extremely and abnormally low volumes. These regions are those associated with memory, motor skills and emotions – explanatory of Lenzi’s symptoms. Three regions also showed to have bigger volumes. 

Majority of the cases of these “sonic attacks” have been documented from 2016 and 2017, with few reported later as well. 

Officials from Cuba have consistently rejected the allegations of these attacks. Citing the complexity of the aforesaid attacks, US government had long suspected involvement of a third nation as well. In August 2017, Russia was included in this list on behest of suspected involvement. Russia has in past used microwave technology. There has been “significant research in Russia/USSR into the effects of pulsed, rather than continuous wave exposures.” 

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