Geopolitics

Why Has China Become The Largest Geopolitical Threat Of The 21st Century?
Geopolitics

Why Has China Become The Largest Geopolitical Threat Of The 21st Century?

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Director William Burns made a clear statement in a recent House Select Committee meeting with members about the threat that China poses to the rest of the world.

The US isn’t mincing its words when it says it is in loggerheads with China over several issues. The issues on focus include trade to human rights in Tibet, Hong Kong and China’s western Xinjiang region, as well as over Taiwan, Beijing’s assertiveness in the South China Sea and the coronavirus pandemic.

China’s attitude towards claiming ownership over sovereign nations around itself also becoming troublesome for US and others.  In fact, the United Nations has also expressed it concerns over how China has been treated minorities and has asked US to take stand against that even.

Making a pertinent statement, Mr. Burns has said that, “I think China poses the single biggest geopolitical test for the United States as far out into the 21st century as I can see.”

China has been threatening the sovereignty of various African nations as it has continued to take over their resources to cover its debts. It has also threatened many other small nations around the South China Sea. These include Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Cambodia, etc.

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What is also getting worrisome is how China’s cyber-attack capabilities have created disruption for various countries, including India. China has found ways and means of infiltrating into various nations’ classified information and database.

So, during the hearing, it was no surprise that Congressman Raja Krishnamoorthi, the only Indian-American in the House Intelligence Committee, said that indeed, China possesses substantial cyber-attack capabilities that have been identified with localised infrastructure disruptions in different countries, for instance, following the clashes between China and India on the Line of Actual Control.

Adding on Congressman Adam Schiff, said that China and Russia have different capabilities and intentions, but both seek to challenge and disrupt and supplant the liberal democratic order built by the United States. There is a definite power game at play here. America is making its first move towards handling a superpower as it sanctions Russia in a big way today, sending off a clear message that cyber crime and bullying will not be tolerated under Biden’s administration. This is, political analysts feel, going to bring trouble to the Russian economy for sure.

Biden Keeps Trump Promise Of Military Sales To UAE
Geopolitics

Biden Keeps Trump Promise Of Military Sales To UAE

Extending an olive branch to the UAE, the promise made in Trump’s administration has been kept in Biden’s presidency too. While most of Biden’s proposed economic layout did not include a huge sum towards defense spending, it seems he has reconciled to this one agreement that had been made with the UAE before Trump stepped out of the White House.

In September last year, Donald Trump had promised to purchase a sizable amount of weaponry from UAE provided the latter supported America’s effort to broker a truce with Israel. UAE kept its part of the bargain, a decision that has been held up by Biden’s administration too.

As the agreement stands, UAE will receive military equipment from America to the tune of $23.37billion. The hefty package contains products from General Atomics, Lockheed Martin Corp and Raytheon Technologies Corp, including 50 F-35 Lighting II aircraft, up to 18 MQ-9B Unmanned Aerial Systems and a package of air-to-air and air-to-ground munitions.

Unlike Trump, Biden’s administration is driven more towards peaceful use of American taxpayers’ money that looks at investment in the field of education, medical facilities and infrastructure. But as the Congress continues to put pressure on the Biden administration to secure its borders due to eminent threat from countries like Iran, Russia and China, there is an understandable need to ensure the coffers are filling in too.

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A predominant source of income for the American economy is its sale of top of the class military equipment it has been supplying to its most trusted trade partners. UAE and Saudi Arabia are one of the many it holds bonds with.

The only bone of contention that Biden’s government has said it has is on the use of the military know-how, at a time when nations are grappling with economic survival under the threat of Covid-19 evolving virus strain.

Iran’s nuclear facility sabotaged in a cyberattack: Could Israel be involved?
Geopolitics

Iran’s nuclear facility sabotaged in a cyberattack: Could Israel be involved?

Iran’s nuclear facility was ‘sabotaged’ in a cyberattack, probably carried out by Israel. The timing of attack that led to power failure at Natanz nuclear reactor facility, south of Tehran, on Sunday appeared to be well planned and took place just a day after it unveiled new uranium enrichment equipment. It was called an “act of terrorism” by Iran’s top nuclear official Ali Akbar Salehi. He, however, did not blame any country for the attack, Israel appears to confirm claims that it was behind the attacks.

The attack took place few hours after scientists at the Natanz reactor restarted spinning advanced centrifuges in order to speed up enriched uranium production. As the authorities in Iran scrambled to contain the large scale power blackout at Natanz, nuclear chief of Iran said a response was warranted against the executors of attack. Meanwhile, the Atomic Energy Agency of Iran confirmed that attack has damaged electricity grid at the nuclear site.

The latest addition at the facility of enrichment equipment is considered to be a pivotal development in Iran’s nuclear programme.

Aviv Kochavi, Israel’s defense chief said that Iran’s “operations in the Middle East are not hidden from the eyes of the enemy”. Interestingly, Israel doesn’t appear to hide behind a curtain or deny the claims of its involvement, nor does it impose any censorship restrictions as it has done earlier on various apparent attacks targeting Iran’s nuclear programme. Public radio of Israel took an unusual step of claiming that Mossad Intelligence Agency has played a key role in the cyberattack at Natanz reactor facility.

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Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said later on Sunday, “The struggle against Iran and its proxies and the Iranian armament efforts is a huge mission.” He added, “The situation that exists today will not necessarily be the situation that will exist tomorrow.” No explanations were given on this cryptic statement.

Iran’s nuclear programme has always posed as an existential threat to Israel, making Iran the top target of Mossad Intelligence Agency of Israel. The cyberattack is only another in a series of such exchange of attacks between the countries. The war between the countries has been escalating across the Middle East for over a decade now. The clashes and attacks have ranged from shipping strikes, execution of top Iran’s nuclear scientist, airstrikes against Iran proxies in Syria, and also latest oil spill in northern Israel.

With Russia threatening its borders, Ukraine urges NATO to ramp up its membership
Geopolitics

With Russia threatening its borders, Ukraine urges NATO to ramp up its membership

Russia is aligning its troops along Ukraine’s borders. This has prompted Ukraine to urge NATO and key member states to hasten its membership process. Ukraine’s President Volodymyr Zelenskiy talked to Jens Stoltenberg, NATO’s secretary general, urging for putting country on membership process in order to put an end to conflict in the eastern Donbas region. The move came after Russia actively started gathering its forces along the Ukrainian borders, threatening the country.

After the call Ukraine presidency said that the most important and urgent issue at hand was “the possibility of obtaining the NATO membership action plan”. This will put Ukraine on the path of future membership. Zelenskiy also made calls for boosting Ukraine’s NATO membership to other members including UK’s Prime Minister Boris Johnson, Canada’s PM Justin Trudeau.

“NATO is the only way to end the war in Donbas. Ukraine’s MAP [membership action plan] will be a real signal for Russia,” Zelenskiy told Stoltenberg. Stoltenberg soon tweeted raising concerns of Russia’s buildup along Ukraine’s borders and said that the alliance “firmly supports Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity”.

Russia’s move of increasing number of troops to the north and east of Ukraine and also in occupied Crimea is though unclear, has managed to keep Ukraine’s president on toes. Last few days have seen Zelenskiy has engaged in a rather frantic series of diplomatic talks.

Russia has not denied assembly of troops but has said that it isn’t threatening anyone. Kremlin’s spokesperson, Dmitry Peskov said that NATO membership is not going to resolve the conflict. “From our point of view, it will only worsen the situation. If you ask the opinion of several million people living in the self-declared republics [in the east of the country] you will see that for them NATO membership is deeply unacceptable.”

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Chairman of the NATO military committee and senior military advisor to the Secretary General, Air Chief Marshal Sir Stuart Peach visited Kyiv on 6-7 April. He met Zelenskiy and attended briefings on NATO-Ukraine partnership and military training progress. Security situation in and around Ukraine were also discussion points of the visit.

Why is Ukraine not still a NATO member?

This question indeed makes a lot of sense. Ukraine at present has been countering Russia’s aggression successfully in the region for seven years now. It is a security donor in the region by protecting a wide region between Black and Baltic Seas from Russia. Battling Russia on traditional field, Ukraine’s invaluable experience is unmatched. This war extends from cyber war to traditional battle.

Keeping in mind Russia’s regular aggressions in and around region, will NATO ramp up its membership process is to be watched out with series of diplomacies surrounding the decision.

Xi Jinping suggests to Angela Merkel a geostrategic autonomy for the EU
Geopolitics

Xi Jinping suggests to Angela Merkel a geostrategic autonomy for the EU

A clear reference to Washington’s disruptive actions in the first phone call between the Chinese leader and the German chancellor after the European sanctions against four senior officials in Beijing for human rights violations. We cooperate, but don’t get involved and don’t be swayed by the Americans. This, in essence, is the message delivered by the Chines president, Xi Jinping, to German Chancellor, Angela Merkel, in the first phone call between the two leaders, following the decision of the EU to impose sanctions on four senior Chinese officials for the systematic violation of human rights in their country. In response, last month, Beijing imposed sanctions on European politicians and institutions. “I hope that the European Union takes the right decisions and achieves its strategic autonomy,” said Xi Jinping according to state television CCTV.

The Chinese leader is clearly referring to the US President Joe Biden’s efforts to induce Europe to take a tougher line with Beijing: “Let’s eliminate disruptive actions,” Xi Jinping underlined during the talks with the German Chancellor. The US, UK, and Canada have also imposed restrictive measures against Beijing. Washington even went so far as to air the hypothesis of boycotting the Winter Olympics in Beijing in 2022. A diplomatic paraphernalia that comes straight from the Cold War.

The Chinese president then expressed the hope that the EU will orient itself to a strategic perspective and “avoid meddling”. And he added that “at the moment relations between China and the EU are facing new development opportunities, but also various challenges”. In December, under pressure mainly from Germany, Brussels signed an investment agreement with Beijing after years of negotiations. But the ferocious repression of the Uyghurs and other minorities in China has prompted the Union to take action against Beijing.

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According to Politico, the Chinese president also stressed the importance of relations between Beijing and Berlin: “We have been Germany’s largest trading partner for five years”. He would have reminded her: “We hope that Germany will remain available to deepen cooperation with Chinese companies”. A spokesperson for Merkel reports that the chancellor would not have reacted to Xi’s thrusts and would have insisted on the importance of dialogue, “including that on issues on which there are differences of opinion”. The two also talked about the international production of vaccines, the efforts in the fight against climate change, and the promotion of biodiversity.

Despite US warning, India-Russia keen on S-400 missile deal and hi tech weapon manufacturing
Geopolitics

Despite US warning, India-Russia keen on S-400 missile deal and hi tech weapon manufacturing

Despite United States warning, India is keen on manufacturing high-tech weapons with Russia under PM Modi’s Make-in-India initiative, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov in a meeting with his counterpart S Jaishankar stated on Tuesday.

The top ministers from the two countries had a conversation on a wide range of issues associated with Afghanistan, space, defense, partnership in nuclear, manufacturing, economic, and vaccine cooperation. They also conceded building a free trade zone between India and the Eurasian Economic Union to strengthen bilateral relations.

Sergey Lavrov stated in a joint press conference that both sides talked about military cooperation, including the manufacturing of Russian weapons in India under the “Atmanirbhar Bharat” and “Make in India” initiatives. In this strategically significant area, Russia is a primary international contractor for India. Lavrov added that both nations have also conceded to join hands in tackling a decline in mutual trade because of the pandemic. 

A coordinated effort on the coronavirus vaccines was also discussed, and Lavrov notified that the Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF) has marked agreements with a few Indian companies to make around 750 million doses of the Sputnik V immunization. 

He didn’t rule out further collaboration to cover the making of Indian vaccines in Russia, while Jaishankar stated that the regulatory authorities of both nations will be deciding on the matter. As far as we might be concerned, if those vaccines to be manufactured in India, it would be one more assertion of the significance of ‘Make in India’ and on our own vaccine capabilities,” Jaishankar added.

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In January, the United States had cautioned India it is probably not going to get a waiver on its outlined procurement of Russian S-400 missiles, increasing the risk of sanctions like those forced on Turkey for purchasing the same, officials aware of the issue told India Today News

Moreover, the Trump administration has been advising India to drop the $5.5 billion agreement for five missiles and circumvent a geopolitical crisis, stating that New Delhi didn’t have a wide waiver from a 2017 US law pointed toward preventing nations from purchasing Russian military equipment. 

However, India states that it requires long-range surface-to-air missiles to be equipped to counter the increasing threat from China. India and China relations are at their lowest point lately due to the contention on the Himalayan border since last April.

US, Iran to discuss steps to revive nuclear deal
Geopolitics

US, Iran to discuss steps to revive nuclear deal

The US and Iran on Friday said they will hold indirect talks in Vienna, Tuesday onwards, in view of broader negotiations to restart the 2015 nuclear deal between the global powers and Tehran.

Iran, till yet, has ruled out the chance of any face-to-face bilateral discussion, but Washington has welcomed the presence of Iran in the Austrian capital as a “healthy step forward” that will aid and assist channelized efforts to bring all sides into compliance with the accord.

New details have surfaced about Tuesday’s diplomatic talks in Vienna to revive the 2015 Iran nuclear deal, including the predicted venues, where representatives of world powers will have meetings with U.S. and Iranian delegations.   

U.S. State Department spokesman Ned Price, in Washington, said U.S. Special Envoy for Iran Robert Malley will be leading the U.S. delegation to the Vienna talks. 

Price said Tuesday’s talks are to be “structured around working groups” that the European Union (EU) will form with Iran and the remaining parties to the JCPOA. 

He added that the agenda would be focusing on the “nuclear steps” and “sanctions relief steps” that Iran and the US will need to take respectively. 

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Britain, France, China, Germany, and Russia are making efforts to restart the Iran nuclear deal that is known as the ‘Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action’. Efforts are in place to bring back the four other world powers into the 2015 agreement and to ask Iran to act in compliance with it.   

The other two predicted venues for the talks are the Hotel Imperial and Grand Hotel Vienna.   As per reports circulating in the international media, the venues are predicted by observing Iranian delegation members moving, back and forth, between the two hotels. Both the hotels are a few minutes apart from each other. 

Easter, Pope Francis warns the world: “Pandemic wars are a scandal”
Geopolitics

Easter, Pope Francis warns the world: “Pandemic wars are a scandal”

Easter does not show a mirage, it does not reveal a magic formula, it does not indicate an escape route in the face of the difficult situation we are going through. “The pandemic – Pope Francis explained yesterday – is still in full swing; the social and economic crisis is very heavy, especially for the poorest; despite this – and it is scandalous – the armed conflicts do not cease and the military arsenals are strengthened.” The second Easter in a time of Coronavirus pandemic. The pontifex after Mass at the Altar of the Chair in the Vatican Basilica, this morning addresses the Easter Message to the faithful who listen to him through radio, television, and other means of communication, shortly before the “Urbi et Orbi” blessing which, in respect of the anti-Covid rules and to avoid gatherings in St. Peter’s Square, it does not take place as a tradition from the central Loggia of the Basilica itself.

 Last year, he did it from the Hall of Blessings of the Apostolic Palace. Yesterday, from the Altar of the Chair. In his words, which reflect the concerns and priorities at the international level, the echo of these difficult months. “The Christ resurrection is hope for those who still suffer from the pandemic, for the sick and for those who have lost a loved one”. He said, adding: “May the Lord give them comfort and support the labor of doctors and nurses. Everyone, especially the most fragile people, needs assistance and has the right to have access to the necessary care. That is even more evident in this time when we are all called to fight the pandemic and vaccines are an essential tool for this fight.”

Francis, in the wake of a concern that was also expressed by the President of the European Commission von der Leyen, in the spirit of an internationalism of vaccines, pushes “the entire international community to a shared commitment to overcome the delays in their distribution and encourage sharing, especially with the poorest countries “. On this point, the line of the Holy See is clear: the efforts of the international community must be the safeguarding of world health.

Not surprisingly, in the words of the pontifex, there are difficulties “for those who have lost their jobs or are going through serious economic difficulties and lack adequate social protection”. “May the Lord – he continues – inspire the action of the public authorities so that all, especially the neediest families, are offered the necessary help for adequate aid. Unfortunately, the pandemic has dramatically increased the number of poor people and the desperation of thousands across the globe. ‘Poor people of all kinds need to start hoping again’, said Saint John Paul II on his trip to Haiti. And my thoughts and encouragement go to the dear Haitian people on this day, so that they are not overwhelmed by difficulties, but look to the future with trust and hope.”

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The Pope, who flew to Myanmar in 2017 asking the generals to safeguard the rights of minorities and those who have no voice, also has in mind the “many young people who have been forced to spend long periods without attending school or university and share time with friends.” He explained: “we need to live real human relationships and not just virtual ones, especially at the age in which character and personality are formed. I am close to young people from all over the world and, at this time, especially to those of Myanmar, who are committed to democracy, making their voices heard peacefully, aware that hatred can only be dispelled by love.”

In July 2013, Francis went, for the first time outside the Vatican walls, to Lampedusa for a penitential day in the heart of the suffering Mediterranean where thousands of refugees lose their lives. And today he still remembers “migrants, fleeing war and misery”. “In their faces – he says – we recognize the disfigured and suffering face of the Lord who goes up to Calvary. May they not lack concrete signs of solidarity and human fraternity, a pledge of the victory of life over death that we celebrate on this day.” The Pope thanks the countries that generously welcome the suffering who seek refuge, especially Lebanon and Jordan, which are hosting many refugees who fled the Syrian conflict.

Returning from Iraq last month, Francis said he wanted a trip to Lebanon. “The Lebanese people – he says today -, who are going through a period of difficulty and uncertainty, experience the consolation of the risen Lord and be supported by the international community in their vocation to be a land of encounter, coexistence, and pluralism”. While he still speaks of Iraq today: “I pray that he may continue the path of pacification he has undertaken, so that God’s dream of a hospitable and welcoming human family towards all his children may be realized”.

Although a trip to Syria is not planned soon, the arrival in Iraq was also in some way a tribute to Syria, land of conquest by Isis like the nearby region between the two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates. Syria is always in the Pope’s thoughts. “Christ our peace – he says not by chance – finally make the roar of weapons cease in beloved and tormented Syria, where millions of people now live-in inhuman conditions, as well as in Yemen, whose events are surrounded by a deafening and scandalous silence, and in Libya, where we can finally see the way out of a decade of bloody strife and clashes. All the parties involved should effectively commit themselves to putting an end to conflicts and allowing war-weary peoples to live in peace and to start the reconstruction of their respective countries.” The Pope dedicated heartfelt words to Yemen and its humanitarian crisis in 2019, arriving in Abu Dhabi. And so, several times, to Libya.

With the change of administration in Washington, the Holy See’s line on Jerusalem is always the same: work for peace and insist on seeking a solution in two states, so that the holy city is a meeting place where everyone can feel like brothers, and where Israelis and Palestinians rediscover the strength of dialogue to reach a stable solution, which sees two states live side by side in peace and prosperity.

The Pope dreams of a trip to South Sudan, after visiting Mozambique and Madagascar in September 2019. The African populations are in the heart of the Pope, who see their future compromised by internal violence and international terrorism, especially in the Sahel and Nigeria, as well as in the Tigray and Cabo Delgado region. “May the efforts continue – he says – to find peaceful solutions to conflicts, respecting human rights and the sacredness of life, with fraternal and constructive dialogue in a spirit of reconciliation and effective solidarity. There are still too many wars and too much violence in the world! May the Lord, who is our peace, help us to overcome the mentality of war. May he grant those who are prisoners in conflicts, especially in eastern Ukraine and Nagorno-Karabakh, to return safely to their families, and inspire rulers around the world to curb the race for new weapons”.

Yesterday, April 4, marks the World Day against landmines, “devious and horrible devices that kill or injure many innocent people every year and prevent humanity from walking together on the paths of life, without fear of the dangers of destruction and death.” The Pope explains, suggesting how beautiful the world can be without these death instruments.

What we learnt about geopolitics of vaccine diplomacy and public healthcare during Covid-19 pandemic
Geopolitics

What we learnt about geopolitics of vaccine diplomacy and public healthcare during Covid-19 pandemic

Relationship between public health, security, diplomacy and geopolitics has been long established through centuries and tested over time through various situations. Pandemics, plagues and epidemics have been a part of human race and consistently has tested it’s endurance. The learnings from such global crisis are then passed over generations through recording data and the adapting them accordingly. The basic foundation remains same… social and global association and cooperation is the pre-requisite for sustainability of human race.

Antonine Plague of 165-180 AD, Spanish Flu of 1918 have underlined importance of public health and cooperation globally.

75th anniversary of the United Nations while celebrated achievements in global cooperation on public health front, it also highlighted how much still remains to be done as the world continues to grapple and scramble to contain ongoing Covid-19 pandemic.

Primal urge of humans for survival is the driving force behind international cooperation, so much that it might supercede it. According to the Global Report on Food Crises 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic will result in over a quarter of a billion people suffering acute hunger by year end. Conditions in African and South American countries is worsening as days go by with extreme cases surge resulting in impacted lives and livelihoods in already economically and politically flabbergasted areas.

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WHO initiated vaccine alliance, Gavi Alliance, was established in 2020 to help poor nations mitigate shortage or unavailability of COVID-19 vaccines. This was the beginning of “vaccine diplomacy” globally – a channel through which UN, various agencies vaccine manufacturers, governments and private sector can communicate and ensure lower mortality due to Covid-19. Vaccine diplomacy has brought to table the essentiality around affordable and equitable distribution across nations.

During pandemic it was evident that financially strong nations like the US, EU and UK rushed to buy bulk amounts of vaccines, leading to a huge gap between vaccine availability in different parts of world. Gavi Alliance and vaccine diplomacy by countries like India (that enjoys being home to world’s largest vaccine manufacturer Serum Institute of India) can bridge the gap between vaccine availability and attaining a public health standardization in world.

Coronavirus in the world, between vaccine chaos and contagions new records
Geopolitics

Coronavirus in the world, between vaccine chaos and contagions new records

Another 664,036 infections and 11,798 deaths in the last 24 hours in the world, from 6.30 yesterday morning to the same time today according to the authoritative database of Johns Hopkins University. Overall, since the onset of the disease, the disease has caused 128,822,735 infections worldwide, of which at least 2,815,166 proved fatal. According to WHO data, yesterday Europe totaled 45% of daily infections (230,467), followed by North and South America (149,102) and Southeast Asia (63,837).

“Vaccines are our best way out of this pandemic. However, the rollout is unacceptably slow and is prolonging the pandemic,” WHO Europe Director Hans Kluge said in a statement. Who then expressed concern about the current peak of cases in Europe: “It is the most worrying in months.” The German Permanent Vaccination Commission (Stiko) advises people under 60 who have received the first dose of AstraZeneca to have a different vaccine injected for the second dose. This is what we read in a “draft decision” presented late last night by the German vaccination authority.

The quality control process “identified a batch of active ingredients that did not conform to quality standards at Emergent BioSolutions in the USA. This batch never went through the filling and finishing stages of our manufacturing process. This is an example of the rigorous quality control applied to each batch of active ingredient “. This was announced by Johnson & Johnson after the blocking of a batch of anti-Covid vaccine at Emergent. The issue “was identified and addressed with Emergent and shared with the US FDA. Quality and safety continue to be our top priority.”

“The United States may not need AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccine, even if it gets approval,” Anthony Fauci, the virologist who leads the US task force, tells Reuters. The vaccine has been authorized for use by dozens of countries, excluding the United States. Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and chief medical adviser to the White House, said that “the United States has sufficient contracts with other vaccine manufacturers to vaccinate the entire population, and perhaps even for boosters in the fall.”

Asked whether the US will use AstraZeneca doses, he said: “Nothing has been decided yet. My feeling is that given the contractual relationships we have with several companies; we have enough vaccine to satisfy all of our companies. needs without resorting to AstraZeneca.”

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  6. US and Iran min 150x150 - Coronavirus in the world, between vaccine chaos and contagions new records

Late last year, the drug manufacturer and the University of Oxford released data from an earlier study with two varying degrees of vaccine efficacy for a dosing error. Then, in March, more than a dozen countries temporarily suspended the use of AstraZeneca’s vaccine after it was linked to a rare blood clotting disorder. Also, in March, a US health agency said the company’s data provided an incomplete picture of its effectiveness. Days later AstraZeneca published results showing reduced, though still strong, efficacy. Fauci said that “If we calculate the number (of doses) we will receive from J & J, from Novavax from Moderna and we bargain for more, it is likely that we can manage the vaccination campaign, but I cannot say for sure.”

The entire American adult population, aged 16 and over, can be vaccinated. With the announcement of Arkansas, the latest that had not yet made a decision, all fifty states have approved vaccination for even the youngest, covering the last portion of the adult population. The first to begin with the distribution of doses to 16-year-olds was Alaska on March 9, followed by Mississippi, West Virginia, Utah, and a part of Arizona. Between Monday and Thursday, it was the turn of twelve other states, including Texas and Connecticut. New York has announced the start of the administration to children from April 6. California starts on April 15th. The last, on May 1, will be Oregon, South Dakota, Nebraska, Hawaii, Alabama, and New Jersey.

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