Tag: Geopolitics

Effects of climate change. Experts warn: “glaciers are disappearing”
Geopolitics

Effects of climate change. Experts warn: “glaciers are disappearing”

Climate change is at the top of the concerns of young people around the world. The effects of terrestrial warming are there for all to see, and in a few decades, the world may no longer be as we know it. New forms of life are born, until a few decades ago, the Pico Humboldt glacier was present, at an altitude of 4940 meters, in Venezuela. The Pico Humboldt glacier in the Sierra Nevada National Park is the last in Venezuela. The climate crisis has accelerated its melting, which has become increasingly rapid over the last decade. For the total disappearance of the glacier, it is now a matter of a few years. Meanwhile, a new biodiversity colonizes the bare rocks. A new research by the Institute of Environmental and Ecological Sciences of the University of the Andes (Ula) has confirmed, documenting the dramatic impact of climate change on Andean glaciers.

Downstream of the Pico Humboldt is Mérida: they called it the city of eternal snow. Overlooking the Andes mountain range, the urban center is now the guardian of the little that remains of the Venezuelan glacier. The snow-capped peaks of the mountains formed its unique landscape. It was the only city from which people could see snow in the whole country. Now the ice remains only on the Humboldt summit, and it still resists thanks to its position on the mountain, protected by an inlet. But a new biodiversity takes the opportunity to colonize the unnaturally exposed lands. The researchers collected images and samples of the Venezuelan glacier between 2019 and 2020 and noted that it retreated at an unusual and alarming rate. From 1910, the year of its first measurement, before the Pico Humboldt ascended its height the following year, the glacier would have lost 99% of its mass.

According to the Institute of Environmental and Ecological Sciences of the University of the Andes, in 2019, the area covered by the glacier was just equivalent to five football fields, or 4.5 hectares, vs the 300 hectares in 1910. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, with the rise in temperatures, glaciers worldwide have been affected by global warming. And the tropical Andes are one of the most vulnerable regions. Almost 10 billion tons of perennial snow from glaciers around the world was lost from 1961 to 2016, with an increasing rate in recent years, according to research by United Space in Europe (ESA). Furthermore, after Greenland and Antarctica, the glaciers of Latin America are the ones that contribute most to the rise of the seas and are even more at risk due to pressure from the mining lobbies, as in Chile.

Researchers question the future not only of the Antarctic ecosystem but also of metropolises such as London, Mumbai, New York, Shanghai as we know them. This scenario is feared by a study conducted by the Research Institute on Climate Impacts of Potsdam, together with the University of Potsdam, Columbia University in New York, and the University of Stockholm. More than half of the planet’s freshwater reserves are guarded by the Antarctic ice sheet, which is about five kilometers thick, Ricarda Winkelmann, co-author of the research, explains in a note released by the Potsdam Research Institute on Climate Impacts.

Greenhouse gas emissions from human activities are causing an increase in the temperatures of the atmosphere and ocean waters. The ice covering the South Pole loses mass and becomes less stable. That causes the sea level of the entire planet to rise.

Is geopolitics impacting the global telecom supply chain?
Geopolitics

Is geopolitics impacting the global telecom supply chain?

Global telecom supply chain: Huawei is among the biggest tech giants and owner of the 5G patent, in contrast to the Western firms. However, stopping Huawei’s access to 5G chipsets from US semiconductor firms can hurt the American economy and moderate the 5G expansion. Closing doors on China would additionally disable the 5G future development.

Analyst for 5G Markets, Leo Gergs, referred to how ABI’s study “shows that forbidding Huawei and ZTE from 5G arrangements and confining their admittance to silicon and semiconductor supply chains will have extreme ramifications on economic performance. Besides, restricting these Chinese companies will hamper 5G and 6G R&D.” 

5G is designed to provide high-speed data transfer at a large scale for future applications. However, since the Federal Communications Commission ordered the Chinese telecom goliaths Huawei and ZTE as the national security threat, it could repress their 5G plans.

Since, December 12, 2019, Australia, Japan, New Zealand, Taiwan, and the U.S. have chosen to ban Chinese company Huawei’s products. In 2020, the UK also annnounced that all Telecoms companies should stop using Huawei hardware in the 5G mobile network from Sept. The UK administration’s announcement came before the law was passed, which later banned the Chinese company from the telecom network.

Huawei has been a market leader in telecom infrastructure and hence is the largest buyer of such equipment. However, since the row over US national security threat, the outbreak of coronavirus, India- China border issue, and many more reasons, many nations have criticized China. It led to more imposed sanctions by the US or cut business ties with them by many nations. 

However, the future will tell if geopolitics will impact the global telecom supply or not. On Dec 15, 2020, Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg and Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL) Chairman Mukesh Ambani, during a historic virtual ‘Collaborating for Digital India’ last year discussed the 4G and 5G technology, RIL-Facebook association, and the part businesses can play in building India’s future economy. 

The Facebook CEO praised Reliance for bringing the 4G revolution in India and that 5G was presently another big venture for the company.

How to stop Africa desertification? A great green wall dedicated to sustainable agriculture, reservoirs, and energy plants
Geopolitics

How to stop Africa desertification? A great green wall dedicated to sustainable agriculture, reservoirs, and energy plants

Africa desertification: In February 2021, there will be a summit of the European Union and African Union leaders. The talks will be an opportunity to draw up a concrete program and take a sustainable development path. Because we need to rebuild the world left in ruins by the coronavirus pandemic, avoiding repeating the mistakes of the past. Ibrahim Thiaw, the executive secretary of the UN Convention for the fight against desertification, announced, recalling how it is above all young people – first and foremost, Africans – who ask for and have the right to change. The meeting will be an opportunity to relaunch the construction of a great green wall in Africa.

The idea is a wall of trees and land dedicated to sustainable agriculture, reservoirs, and energy plants. It is 8,000 km long and 15 wides. The project aims to restore 100 million hectares of arid and degraded land by holding back the desert’s advance in the Sahel region. Two hundred and fifty million tons of carbon dioxide and create a new economy with 10 million jobs. These are the most important numbers of the Great Green Wall, the most innovative natural work that man has ever built. That should be ready in 2030, in an ideal connection that horizontally cuts the Africa continent.

From Senegal to Djibouti, three times the size of the coral reef. The idea of ​​creating a natural wall to stop the advance of the Sahara Desert to the south was launched by Richard St. Barbe Baker in 1952, returning from an expedition in the Sahara Desert.

The English biologist and botanist had caught some signs. He noted that the lands on the border desert in a few decades would be overwhelmed by its advance. The scientist proposed a project to reforest a green belt 50 km wide for the 8,000 of the natural length of the corridor. The Sahel desertification process became evident and upsetting in the 1970s when, following droughts, they rapidly dried up.

The countries affected by this crisis began to discuss that old project which anticipated the effects but also offered possible solutions to stop them. Only in 2002, however, the project of the great green wall was officially presented and discussed within the African Union, which adopted it.

After five years, in 2007, it started with its construction in the 11 participating countries to which, in recent years, another nine have been added. That partly modified the initial corridor with the addition of off-screen areas to counteract the desert from the north and, at the same time, participate in the promised green economy. Algeria, Burkina Faso, Benin, Cameroon, Chad, Cape Verde, Djibouti, Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan, Gambia, and Tunisia are the countries part of the project.

However, 15 years after the first stone or better from the first tree planted, things are very late and proceed in patches, with enormous differences and different timings from country to country. From the UNCCD report (the United Nations Convention Against Desertification, last September only 4 million hectares (out of the 100 million expected) were completely recovered. Of these, more than half 2.3 million hectares) are in Ethiopia. Another 18 million hectares are in processing, although not all within the official corridor.

These works have allowed the creation of just 335,000 jobs, with 90 million dollars in revenues per year, compared to the 10 million expected when the work will be fully operational. Among the countries that have planted the most trees, Ethiopia with as many as 16.6 million plants. While in the rear, there is Chad, only 1.1 million plants.

Ukraine stuck in vaccine geopolitics amid coronavirus pandemic
Geopolitics

Ukraine stuck in vaccine geopolitics amid coronavirus pandemic

Vaccine Geopolitics: To begin with, the first talks with Pfizer company and other Western vaccine manufacturers to get early shipments imploded after the Trump administration restricted vaccine exports. Presently, chances are only if President-elect Joe Biden takes office, the soonest commercial purchase of Western vaccines will be possible, The New York Times reported.

The pace of Covid disease in Ukraine has eased back in recent weeks with over 7,000 new cases reported every day. Since the start of the pandemic, 19,712 Ukrainians have passed away due to the infection. Ukraine declared a nationwide lockdown beginning from this weekend.

The immunization situation has generated an information war in Ukraine, which has been stirred up by Russia. TV broadcasting pro-Russian perspectives along with politicians have blamed President Zelensky for permitting Ukrainians to cease to exist of a difficult refusal to procure medication from an enemy nation. 

The nation is already battling with a tug of war between East and West in European political issues, which has presently become a point of convergence in the geopolitics being played on the covid-19 vaccine.

According to The New York Times, Lyudmyla Boiko’s family has just had a frightening, and deadly, experience with the Covid pandemic. 

A few relatives acquired the virus, and her daughter-in-law’s mom passed away. Presently, Ms. Boiko, a 61-year-old working at the Botanical Garden in Ukraine, is profoundly stressed over her husband’s health, which has medical conditions yet has not yet contracted the disease. She is placing her faith in an immunization. 

“I don’t mind where the vaccine is delivered as long as it’s safe, “Wellbeing ought to be the priority, Ms. Boiko stated.” 

Ukraine’s situation has grabbed the attention of Russia’s state-controlled media sources, who have underlined Ukraine’s Western partner’s failure to help in the time of need and offering the Russian Sputnik V vaccine as the alternative. 

Ukraine’s leaders, who have raised concerns over the efficacy and safety of the Sputnik V instead opted for China, purchasing its first vaccine in a rushed arrangement by the end of December 2020. 

“Russia, as usual, utilizes this in its crossover battle, as a data weapon,” Maksym Stepanov, Ukraine’s health minister stated over a phone interview about the nation’s work towards immunizing its populace. “He stressed, that the vaccine issue has been politicized.” 

The Russian insult has shocked Ukrainian health authorities; however, there is little they can do to counter it without an elective vaccine stock. 

“Russia is seeking an aggressive policy for the vaccine,” Oleksandr Linchevsky, former deputy health minister stated. “It’s in Russia’s governmental interest that Ukraine gets the vaccine from somewhere else soon as possible,” he added.

Ukraine, with a populace of 42 million, is expecting to get 8,000,000 vaccine injections under the Covax program that provides middle and low-income nations. However, those doses are scheduled to arrive in March.

Before the banning of vaccine exports from the United States, Ukraine had been in talks with Moderna, Pfizer, and Johnson and Johnson to accelerate delivery. However, the negotiations are in process, the delivery time is deferred.

Ukraine’s Volodymyr Zelensky has scarcely contained his shock at his nation ending up far back in the line for immunizations in spite of its uncertain geopolitical situation.

New geopolitics. Is the coronavirus vaccine changing the world travel system and visa regime?
Geopolitics

New geopolitics. Is the coronavirus vaccine changing the world travel system and visa regime?

Visa Regime: The main problem of 2020 was by far the global reaction to Covid-19, and there is the prevailing belief that in some way, 2021 will automatically be different because one figure in the year has changed. The world expects all of this to “end.” But perhaps the main question shouldn’t be when the Coronavirus problem ends, but how it will end. This health crisis, like all others, is the catalyst for political change. It has already left a bureaucratic trace in history.

The potentially most interesting -or terrifying it is the case to say – systemic change brought about by the virus would be the beginning of a sort of mandatory vaccination to travel. This concept, unthinkable just a year ago, has been treated by the mainstream media both positively and negatively, with some governments already verbally endorsing it.

Currently, the main form of bureaucracy for international travel is the citizenship-based passport. The proposed idea of allowing only vaccinated individuals to travel will essentially create the need for a second passport -regardless of the definition attributed to it – based on vaccination documentation. Therefore, since this new documentation proving vaccination will essentially function as a passport, we should look at the passports’ geopolitical aspects before examining those of vaccination.

The regime of passports and visas throughout the 20th century became the mirror of national power and created its own bureaucratic geopolitical spaces. If we look at the Global Passport Power Rank 2021, we see surprisingly top-ranking nations are not in the West. The choice of using the word “power” in the description of passports is very relevant. For example, US citizens can visit Bulgaria and Serbia without a visa, while Serbs and Bulgarians have to go through the bureaucracy, taxes, and talks necessary to have the privilege of stepping on American soil.

While many Bulgarians may think the United States is an ally that saved them from Communism, there are plenty of Serbs who today regard Washington as the killer of the people but still give Americans 90 days to stay in their country without asking questions.

On the contrary, and unlike many European nations, the Serbs allow Russia thirty days for business or holidays. Very often, traditional allies of a Nation can enjoy visa-free entry. Speaking of Russia, it is not surprising that many small nations that Russia recognizes, unlike America, allow Russian citizens to enter without a visa (South Ossetia, Abkhazia, etc.). Furthermore, as Russia’s influence increased after its total defeat in the Cold War, her passport has steadily increased its “power.” Visas and passports can reflect the strength of a nation or its proximity to power when its citizens can go almost anywhere while at the same time blocking entry to the less important.

If we have to live in a world where vaccination will be mandatory to travel, who tells us that every nation on Earth will recognize other vaccines’ validity? According to media reports, it appears that vaccination confirmed by some documents should be sufficient, but this is unlikely. The BBC has already spoken of the Russian Sputnik V vaccine against COVID-19 with some scepticism. We can believe many British politicians may choose not to recognize the Russian vaccine’s efficacy.

On the contrary, whether we like it or not, Russian citizens will only have access to the vaccine created by the Russians. You will have the choice to do it or not, but getting Pfizer’s American one will require effort, patience, and much personal expense. Then, it will be very complicated for Russian citizens to obtain a vaccine from a foreign competitor.

They will have to under the Sputnik V camp, from a bureaucratic point of view. In reality, there seems to be almost a vaccination rush as nations compete to develop and export their vaccine first. It could be a matter of national pride or humanitarian interests, but it could also be a matter of willingness to provide your vaccine to as many nations as possible.

Likewise, all Russian citizens with Russian passports will be placed in one large group. In the case of a vaccine passport, all people treated with Sputnik V or Pfizer will be in a similar travel category. If this is indeed happening, then surely the race is underway to secure as much of this intangible new geopolitical space as possible.

Why Taiwan Is The Moot Point In Sino-American Dynamics?
Geopolitics

Why Taiwan Is The Moot Point In Sino-American Dynamics?

Sino-American Dynamics: The ‘nobody’ that Taiwan has been, it is going to derive a kind of prominence it has never seen before. As the small island develops its prowess in the semiconductor manufacturing trade, it is going to its closest ally the United States huge competition. It is worth noting that the United States has dominated the semi-conductor market for a long time. 

A recent visit planned by the US envoy to the United Nations to Taiwan, did not go well with Beijing. China accused America of crossing its line and disrupting Chinese sovereignty that continues to claim ownership on Taiwan. Ambassador to the UN Kelly Craft will visit Taiwan; something that is should be seen as a clear provocation of the ‘One China’ policy, as there is change of guard at the White House. 

The US has never recognized the sovereignty of Taiwan but treats it as a point of irritation against China. Ironically, some 17 countries worldwide still shows Taiwan the respect it deserves. The United Nations does not and still considers Taipei’s legitimate government to be running from Beijing. While China has been claiming its right on Taiwan, it has made no moves to physically claim this small but significant island. 

Taiwan continues to be a crucial link in the semiconductor supply chain and the 22nd largest economy in the world. Surprisingly, it has let US dictate terms of trade with itself, without acknowledging it as an independent nation. 

Taiwan has not dominated significant international presence. But geopolitically, it has strategic importance to both the United States and an increasingly assertive China. In no way can US afford Taiwan to be taken over by China; because if that was to happen, China would instantly become a Pacific power.

As political analysts predict, it will take no time for China to get down to controlling some of the world’s most cutting-edge technologies, and have the ability to choke off oil shipments to Japan and South Korea. This could further lead it to leverage a strong demand to close down the U.S. military bases in both countries as well. 

Indeed, Beijing would likely be able to force the U.S. out of Asia after all. It is no surprise, then, that Taiwan had been of the rare issues on Capitol Hill where the Congress continued to pass pro-Taiwan legislation. 

More importantly, Taiwan needs to assert its sovereignty in order it can grow itself in a level playing ground. 

Conflicts of the future. Water Wars: blue gold is worth more than black
Geopolitics

Conflicts of the future. Water Wars: blue gold is worth more than black

Conflicts of the future: In 2018, a World Bank report spoke of 507 conflicts in the world related to water resources control. While the whole world is focused on energy resources analysis as the main factor in wars, little is said about the water. The scarcity of which could change the destinies of future global conflicts. UNESCO, in a report with the emblematic title The United Nations world water development report 2019. Leaving no one behind, estimated that 2.1 billion people in the world do not have access to safe water and 4.5 billion do not have sanitation safe. Refugees are the weakest category and the most exposed to water crises. The report also states that, from 2015 to 2019, 25.3 million people a year, on average, migrate due to natural disasters. It is clear that, as reiterated by many experts, it is not only the global geopolitical situation that causes migration but also the climate change underway.

Researchers from the Water, Peace, and Security Partnership have presented a detailed map to the United Nations Security Council in which it is noted where conflicts over access to water resources are expected to occur, in the period between June 2020 and May 2021. The Middle East and North Africa are the area most at risk. Regions where, in addition to political and security instability, there is a serious shortage of water. Just think of southern Iraq, which for some years has been facing continuous droughts linked to the construction of large dams in Turkey that limit the water regime of the Tigris and Euphrates. The South-eastern Anatolia Project, planned by the Ankara government, includes, in fact, the construction of a system of 22 dams along the two rivers with the aim of improving the local economy in one of the poorest areas of the country. In mid-July, the Iraqi minister for water resources denounced the severe shortage of water in the north of the country, warning of the dangers that this situation could entail for the stability of Iraq itself.

According to the ministry’s data, the flow of water from Turkey decreased by 50% compared to 2019 and the same decrease was recorded in relation to the low annual rainfall. In addition, some scholars also blame Syria’s civil war on many years of drought. In fact, between 2006 and 2010, Syria experienced the worst drought ever recorded. The water shortage has caused the migration of nearly 2 million farmers to the centers of Aleppo and Damascus, perhaps preparing the ground for the political and social unrest of the years to come. 

Today, the attention is on the ongoing crisis between Egypt, Sudan, and Ethiopia for the Nile waters. Since Herodotus’ time, the Nile was considered as a gift for the importance it has for the Egyptian people. Since 2011, Ethiopia has started a hydroelectric energy production project, building a large dam on the Nile River to promote development and meet the population needs. Also, in terms of energy requirements. 

Despite various unsuccessful attempts to reach an agreement between Ethiopia, Egypt, and Sudan, Addis Ababa began filling the African dam on July 15, without agreements with its counterparts. The Blue Nile, on which construction is proceeding, is one of the major Nile River tributaries, from which Cairo draws more than 90% of its water needs. According to Egypt, the dam endangers the lives of more than 150 million people, Egyptians and Sudanese. Al-Sisi wants to make sure that the construction of GERD does not cause damage to the Egyptian supply. And that its filling takes place gradually. From its side, Ethiopia argues that the hydroelectric project is essential to sustain its rapidly growing economy. It believes that it will favor the development of the entire region.

Addis Ababa, in particular, declares that over 60% of the country is made up of dry land, while Egypt, on the other hand, has groundwater and has access to seawater that it could desalinate. For the moment, mainly for geographical and economic reasons, a war between the two countries is a remote hypothesis. If the Nile flow could not cause a shortage of water in Egypt, the path of dialogue should not work. It is reasonable to think that the Cairo air force could hit the dam in the area upstream of the river, thus trying to stem the problem. If a war occurs, it could cause external powers to enter the field.

Egypt spent last year in military 2200.00 USD Million. Ethiopia invested only € 300 million in defense. However, Addis Ababa is looking to other countries. Ethiopia and France concluded their first military cooperation agreement on March 12, 2019. On July 16, the Turkish foreign minister visited the Ethiopian capital. Turkey is the second-largest foreign investor in Ethiopia after China, with over 150 companies in the country and, therefore, has every interest in having the dam built. However, given the tense relations between Egypt and Turkey in other theatres like Libya there could be an interest by Ankara also in an anti-Egyptian key. Some time ago, al-Sisi had declared that the Egyptian army is one of the most powerful in the region, ready to carry out any mission on its borders or, if necessary, outside. Was it a reference to Libya, or maybe there is more?

Will Geopolitics and the global economic change in 2021 amid the shadow of the pandemic?
Geopolitics

Will Geopolitics and the global economic change in 2021 amid the shadow of the pandemic?

Global Economic Change: The year 2020 has been through a lot following the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic. Moreover, the global economy has been dominated by its aftermaths. To control the virus spread many nations had to decide on imposing nationwide lockdown, social distancing, and equipping health care centers with adequate health equipment to fight the challenge.

The monetary and public health responses from nations across the world have exacerbated various geopolitical and economic trends. The narrative of 2021 in the global economy will continue to be overwhelmed by the pandemic, yet examining these patterns will help us understand the system of the post-pandemic era. 

The world will confront other significant challenges, for example, wildfires, climate crisis, and extreme climate. They will have to cut down on carbon emissions and forestall global warming. 

In Nov, world pioneers will meet in Glasgow for an important summit. As it was deferred for a year given the pandemic, there is mounting pressure for them to concur with critical new measures. 

Within nations, existing disparities in incomes were furthermore deteriorated by the aftermath of the pandemic. We frequently heard that the infection didn’t segregate but in some areas it did. 

For instance, In India during a nationwide lockdown large number of migrants got stranded in cities. They had to walk back miles to reach their towns. relief stimulus packages across the world were pushed to uplift the economy. Elderly citizens are more susceptible to COVID-19, and they could quarantine themselves better when they had space at home and sufficient financial backing.

According to financial and political analysts, going ahead into 2021, nations that will more adequately roll out the immunization will be able to lift physical-distancing measures. Nations those are able to tap the global market to improve their borrowing to pay more on relief aid will also control the pandemic.

States with more proficient administration structures will have the option to maintain a stable economy. Social structures that are more comprehensive and have expansive access have responded more suited to the pandemic. The quality of revival and relief will be more essential to focus on in 2021. 

In 2021, there may likewise be expanded pushback even from nations that are moderately dependent upon Chinese trade, for example, Australia, India, Japan, and the United States. 

Before the end of the Trump administration had overturned many years of strategy, refusing to compromise against Beijing on trade and bilateral issues, including reinforcing political and military support for Taiwan. As per critics, the new President-elect Mr. Joe Biden is expected to utilize a less confrontational strategy.

The global war for sand- The World Reviews
Geopolitics

The global war for sand- The World Reviews

War for Sand: From the 1960s, Singapore has expanded by about 20%, thanks to a drainage system that has allowed the country to recover land from the sea and additional sands use. The need to expand the land area derives, for Singapore, from the population growth and the consequent need to find new areas available for the construction of residential buildings. But also, to expand the infrastructure and transport system. In recent years Singapore has entered into a dispute with neighboring countries, especially Indonesia and Malaysia, over allegations of illegal sand trafficking from the two countries’ beaches to Singapore.

Malaysia, along with Indonesia, Cambodia, and Vietnam, has placed a ban on the export of sand. Since this practice is considered harmful to the conservation of its natural heritage. According to multiple reports and local testimonies, thousands of tons of sand are taken by traffickers who, with small boats, reach the nearby Malaysian and Indonesian coasts, smuggling them into Singapore.

Sand is an extremely important non-renewable resource. Its use in the construction sector has made the war for sand a global phenomenon. In America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East, unscrupulous contractors take sand from our beaches to build skyscrapers and luxury hotels. In Miami, the mayor confirmed a paradoxical situation. While millions of tourists choose Florida for its sandy beaches, the continued construction of resorts along the coast has meant that these beaches are disappearing today. 

Even in Morocco, the inhabitants of Agadir say that traffickers exploiting low-cost local labor are taking tons of sand, causing damage to the entire ecosystem. The United Arab Emirates also uses sand skyscrapers building, although many Burj Khalifa apartments are empty today. A European construction company has asked the EU Commission to remove the ban on French waters in Marseille, towards the English Channel to extract sand from the seabed. The news sparked the local fishermen’s ire. They raised their voices for the EU to continue to protect the seabed in that area.

According to a research published in the journal Nature Climate Change, half of the world’s beaches could disappear by the end of this century.  as a result of climate change-induced coastal erosion and rising seas. The scientists used satellite images to measure how coastlines have evolved over the past 30 years. They then used projections of sea-level rise to imagine how beaches and shores could change in the future. According to the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, average global sea levels could rise by 0.95 feet to 3.61 feet by the end of this century. But it’s not just climate change that puts our beaches at risk. Man is, once again, the most predominant risk factor.

 Oceans usually move the grains of sand from ashore to another, but the ever more frequent construction of artificial barriers by States to protect their coasts blocks this process irremediably. The sand takes millions of years to reach the sill, through the path of the rivers. Streams carry with them during their journey the debris of rocks and stones, depositing on the coast. The dams continued global construction not only stops river water but also the sand ends on the walls of these artificial systems, without reaching the sea. All that is accelerating the disappearance of our beaches, already at risk from rising sea levels due to global warming.

Marine biologists have already warned of permanent damage that emptying sand from the seabed is an inhumane practice as it takes away millions of being. It also doesn’t give any results as it is not possible to stop the sand. The construction industry has begun to appreciate the use of glass sand in recent years. Glass sand is obtained by processing glass remains that are not recycled. This process has a cost, while the sand is free. The mafias have entered the sand trade, and until governments take measures to protect our shorelines, few will buy glass sand. The beaches are not ours. We can enjoy them today and then leave them to our children, from generation to generation. We must protect and respect them.

What are the overall implications of the geopolitics of technology for 2021?
Geopolitics

What are the overall implications of the geopolitics of technology for 2021?

Geopolitics of Technology: 2020 has been a year where the world has leaped to a new order of power characterized by technology instead of oil, says geopolitical futurist Abishur Prakash. 

Abshur Prakash is a geopolitical futurist in the Center for Innovating the Future (CIF) in Canada. He is the writer of four books, including Next Geopolitics: Volume 1 and 2, Go.AI (Geopolitics of Artificial Intelligence), and his latest book, The Age of Killer Robots. 

With technology progressing very fast and private tech organizations building colossal power, governments have been compelled to adjust to a courageous new siliconized world and with significant ramifications for the fate of the worldwide financial and political framework. 

The past model of geopolitics, represented by oil and petroleum gas, was comprised of nations with private sectors holding a global system. In the upcoming Geopolitics, there are not just nations that are geopolitical players, however, tech companies have become global partners in their own power and should be treated accordingly, Prakash revealed to The National. 

Prakash added that the new global turning point will emerge with the use of AI and advanced mechanics by militaries.“There is presently a shroud of vulnerability over what could occur on the planet because of militaries’ getting subject to automated combat,” He highlighted the killing of Mohsen Fakhrizadeh, Iran’s top atomic researcher. 

In matters of tech governance, World powers will need to set up new zones and policies to make information sovereign. All in all, the data assembled online by companies will be dependent upon the laws of the nation in which it is gathered or handled and stay within its borders. 

For instance, As India had passed information localization laws, first introduced during PM Narendra Modi’s election, or in the EU’s proposed strategy aiming to produce a single market for data sharing.

“There has been a perpetual shift in democracies around the globe saying, we won’t permit Facebook, Alphabet, whomever – to hold the information without sharing,” Now the battle is amid Big Tech and world powers, says Prakash. 

As per the CIF, countries will disrupt guidelines in space to set up dominance and the international danger is about placing claim to the region and annoying other rival nations.

The Outer Space Treaty, sanctioned by the UN in 1967, is an obsolete enactment that has left the world defenseless against countries laying their case past Earth’s atmosphere. 

At present, there is a need for tighter rules on 5G and AI. The danger of extinguishing new innovations in this next race of technology is inconceivably high because there is no current playbook to utilize or monitor it, Prakash added. With lots of money invested in innovations, organizations will lose a great deal if international relations disrupt the regular flow, he added.

The upcoming race to 5G is causing new groups to emerge. These are alliances that are representing the new foreign policy declaration of the countries, as per CIF, and choosing teams over 5G has a lot more extensive ramifications for international strategy than what pioneers understand. 

The Trump team has boycotted Chinese tech goliath Huawei’s 5G and has the two countries and telcos the same to sign on. Members incorporate the UK, Poland, Czech Republic, Sweden, Denmark, and Latvia just as France’s Orange and Jio in India. 

Each country has desires to become technologically powerful. The financial plan of nations is progressively turning, particularly in a post-pandemic recuperation, around AI, robotics, and blockchain. As countries race to become tech powers, there is presently a battle of expertise. Simultaneously, geopolitics and the case of China’s supremacy in 5G is building a new fear within the minds of many nations, Prakash expressed. 

He added “We believe that China will make an extreme move in 2021 and could tell enormous US tech companies that rely upon the Chinese market that it will forbid it from getting any chips. This has gigantic geopolitical ramifications and also ruin any idea of the US and China getting back together in the future.

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